Non-synaptic function of the autism spectrum disorder-associated gene SYNGAP1 in cortical neurogenesis
They appear distant and closed-in, avoiding eye contact and shying away from their parents’ hugs. They may exhibit unusual behaviors, like flapping their arms or obsessively lining up their toys. They are among the approximately 1.5 million children in America who have autism — a condition that interferes with a child’s ability to communicate and interact socially. Clinical assessment, genetics, and treatment approaches in autism spectrum disorder . Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) is a test with different modules, depending on the child’s age, for clinicians to observe social skills, communication, play, and repetitive behavior. The 1960s witnessed major transformations in the care of the mentally ill in Britain. In 1959, the British Government passed the Mental Health Act which discredited most legal powers that had previously compelled the mentally defective and insane to institutional treatment.
With this method, parents and professionals (teachers, therapists, etc.) work closely together to improve the child’s adaptive skills through structured cognitive and behavioral therapy. The program is individualized to the child, and takes place in several environments-from clinics to classrooms. Other educational programs include the Higashi School, which teaches positive behaviors through art, academics and physical education; and Bright Start, which helps improve children’s communication, attention and cognitive skills. Epileptic seizures, mental retardation and vision and/or hearing loss are also common in children who have autism. Social interaction – Children with autism have difficulty relating to other people, in part because they can’t understand other people’s feelings and social cues. They may shy away from physical or emotional contact, avoiding hugs and eye contact. Because autism affects the senses, some everyday sounds or smells may be unbearable to autistic children.
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Determining the diagnosis
Autistic people may learn different things at different speeds, such as learning to read chapter books before learning to speak in sentences. Their social development may be particularly slow.Some autistic people learn to speak late. An autistic person feels very passionate about their interest. Autistic people may have one, two, or more deep passions at a time. An autistic person can spend a very long time engaged with this topic, and can recite a long “infodump” of information to others.Special interests can fade, change, and be created over time.
Sarcasm and figures of speech can be especially tricky to detect. No matter how you feel after a diagnosis, keep in mind that, just like everyone else, you have unique strengths and weaknesses.
If your child is showing certain autistic traits, you should request an evaluation from your pediatrician. This article traces this radical transformation of the concept of autism in Britain, exploring the reasons behind the shift and the impact that it has had on psychological sciences relating to infants and children. It argues that the change in the meaning of autism was part of a more general shift in Anglo-American psychiatric reasoning which sought to understand psychological problems through epidemiological studies rather than individual cases.